GP guide algorithm references

References for the Helping patients to stop smoking: a guide for general practitioners pharmacotherapy algorithm

  1. The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners. Supporting smoking cessation: A guide for health professionals. 2nd ed. East Melbourne, Vic: RACGP; 2019.

  2. Heatherton TF, Kozlowski LT, Frecker RC, Fagerstrom KO. The Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence: a revision of the Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire. Br J Addict. 1991;86(9):1119-27.

  3. Fidler JA, Shahab L, West R. Strength of urges to smoke as a measure of severity of cigarette dependence: comparison with the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence and its components. Addiction. 2011;106(3):631-8.

  4. Cahill K, Lindson-Hawley N, Thomas KH, Fanshawe TR, Lancaster T. Nicotine receptor partial agonists for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016(5):CD006103.

  5. Hartmann-Boyce J, Chepkin SC, Ye W, Bullen C, Lancaster T. Nicotine replacement therapy versus control for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018;5:CD000146.

  6. Howes S, Hartmann-Boyce J, Livingstone-Banks J, Hong B, Lindson N. Antidepressants for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020;4:CD000031.

  7. National Health and Medical Research Council. CEO Statement: Electronic Cigarettes. Canberra: National Health and Medical Research Council; June 2022.

  8. Polosa R, Benowitz NL. Treatment of nicotine addiction: present therapeutic options and pipeline developments. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2011;32(5):281-9.

  9. Kotz D, Brown J, West R. 'Real-world' effectiveness of smoking cessation treatments: a population study. Addiction. 2014;109(3):491-9.

  10. Stead LF, Koilpillai P, Fanshawe TR, Lancaster T. Combined pharmacotherapy and behavioural interventions for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;3:CD008286.

  11. Lucas C, Martin J. Smoking and drug interactions. Australian Prescriber. 2013;36:102-4.

  12. Kroon LA. Drug interactions with smoking. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2007;64(18):1917-21.

  13. Moolchan ET, Robinson ML, Ernst M, et al. Safety and efficacy of the nicotine patch and gum for the treatment of adolescent tobacco addiction. Pediatrics. 2005;115(4):e407-14.

  14. Nicorette lozenge (nicotine). October 2019. Available from: Accessed: November 2022.

  15. Claire R, Chamberlain C, Davey MA, et al. Pharmacological interventions for promoting smoking cessation during pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020;3:CD010078.

  16. Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme. PBS Schedule search for nicotine. Available from: Accessed: 28 October 2022.

  17. Stead LF, Perera R, Bullen C, et al. Nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;11:CD000146.

  18. Anthenelli RM, Benowitz NL, West R, et al. Neuropsychiatric safety and efficacy of varenicline, bupropion, and nicotine patch in smokers with and without psychiatric disorders (EAGLES): a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Lancet. 2016;387(10037):2507-20.

  19. Champix (Varenicline) Product Information. 15 March 2019. Available from: Accessed: 11 November 2022.

  20. Chang PH, Chiang CH, Ho WC, Wu PZ, Tsai JS, Guo FR. Combination therapy of varenicline with nicotine replacement therapy is better than varenicline alone: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. BMC Public Health. 2015;15:689.

  21. Cahill K, Stevens S, Perera R, Lancaster T. Pharmacological interventions for smoking cessation: an overview and network meta-analysis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013(5):CD009329.

  22. Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme. Varenicline. Available from: Accessed: November 2022.

  23. Tonstad S, Tonnesen P, Hajek P, et al. Effect of maintenance therapy with varenicline on smoking cessation: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2006;296(1):64-71.

  24. Australian Medicines Handbook. Drugs for nicotine dependence, in Australian Medicines Handbook. Adelaide: Australian Medicines Handbook Pty Ltd; 2020.

  25. Zyban SR (bupropion hydrochloride) Product Information. January 2022. Available from: Accessed: 28 October 2022.

  26. Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme. Bupropion. Available from: Accessed: 11 November 2022.